Science/Clinical Research

Cancer Treatment Research Studies

Novel Mechanism of Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Studies have emphasized an am antineoplastic effect on the non-psychoactive, phyto-cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is not fully elucidated. Herin, we have examined the effect of CBD on two different human breast cancer cell lines.

Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Agonist as a Novel Analgesic in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

Many malignant cancers, including breast cancer, have a propensity to invade bones, leading to excruciating bone pain. Opioids are the primary analgesics used to alleviate this cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) but are associated with numerous severe side effects, including enhanced bone degradation, which significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. By contrast, agonists activating only peripheral CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) have been shown to effectively alleviate multiple chronic pain conditions with limited side effects.

Identification of Synergistic Interaction Between Cannabis-Derived Compounds for Cytotoxic Activity in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines and Colon Polyps That Induces Apoptosis-Related Cell Death and Distinct Gene Expression

Colorectal cancer remains the third most common cancer diagnosis and fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Purified cannabinoids have been reported to prevent proliferation, metastasis, and induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell types. This study was aimed to specify the cytotoxic effects of C. sativa-derived extracts on colon cancer cells and adenomatous polyps by identification of active compounds and characterization of their interaction

Cannabidiol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells

The main chemical component of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have antitumor properties. The resent study examined the in vitro effects of CBD on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. CBD significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGS-7901 cells .Further investigation showed that CBD significantly upregulated ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM) and p53 protein expression and downregulated p21 protein expression in SGC-7901 cells, which subsequently inhibited the levels of CDK2 and cyclin E, thereby resulting in cell cycle arrest at the Go-G1 phase.

Cannabidiol (CBD) Is A Novel Inhibitor For Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release in Cancer

Exosomes and microvesicles (EMV) are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, released by cells involved in intercellular communication through transfer of proteins and genetic material. EMV release is also associated with various pathologies, including cancer, where increased EMV release is amongst other associated with chemo-resistance and active transfer of pro-oncogenic factors.

Cannabinoids and Omega 3 6 Endocannabinoids as Cell Death and Anticancer Modulators

Cannabinoids-endocannaboids are possible preventatives of common diseases including cancers. Cannabinoid receptors (CB1/2 TRPV1) are central components of the system. Many disease-ameliorating effects of cannabinoids-endocannabinoids are receptor mediated, but many are not, indicating non-CBR signaling pathways.

Clinical Outcomes and Image Response of Two Patients with Secondary High-Grade Glioma Treated with Chemoradiation, PCV, and Cannabidiol

Two patients with a confirmed diagnosis of high-grade gliomas (Grades III/IV), both presenting with O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylated and isocitrate dehdrogenase (DH-1) mutated, after subtotal resection, were submitted to chemoradiation and followed by PCV, a multiple drug regimen (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) associated with cannabidiol (CBD). Both patients presented with satisfactory clinical and imaging responses at periodic evaluations.

Flavonoid Derivative of Cannabis Demostrates Therapeutic Potential in Preclinical Models of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is particularly refractory to modern therapies, with a 5-year survival rate for patients at a dismal 8%. One of the significant barriers to effective treatment is the immunosuppressive pancreatic tumor microenvironment and development to resistance to treatment.

On the Influence of Cannabinoids on Cell Morphology and Motility of Glioblastoma Cells

The mechanisms behind the anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids by impacting the migratory activity of tumor cells are only partially understood. Previous studies demonstrated that cannabinoids altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types.

Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System as a Potential Anticancer Strategy

Currently, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in cancer development and possible options for cancer-regressive effect of cannabinoids are controversially discussed. In recent decades, a number of preclinical studies have shown that cannabinoids have an anticarcinogenic potential.

Potential Use of Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

Cannabinoid extracts may have anticancer properties, which can improve cancer treatment outcomes. The aim of this review is to determine the potentially utility of cannabinoids in cancer treatment of pancreatic caner. A literature review focused on the biological effects of cannabinoids in cancer treatment, with a focus on pancreatic cancer, was conducted. In vitro and in vivo studies that investigated the effects of cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer were identified and potential mechanisms of action were assessed. 

Report of Objective Clinical Responses of Cancer Patients to Pharmaceutical-Grade Synthetic Cannabidiol

Cannabinoids are widely used in the management of pain, nausea and cachexia in cancer patients. However, there has been no objective clinical evidence of any anticancer activity yet. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pharmaceutical-grade synthetic cannabidiol on a range of cancer patients. 

Synthetic Cannabinoids Influence the Invasion of Glioblastoma Cell Lines in a Cell- and Receptor-Dependent Manner

The current treatment of glioblastoma is not sufficient, since they are heterogeneous and often resistant to chemotherapy. Earlier studies demonstrated effects of specific cannabinoid receptor (CB) agonists on the invasiveness of glioblastoma cell lines, but the exact mechanism remained unclear. 

The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids

As a therapeutic agent, most people are familiar with the palliative effects of the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannabis Sativa (CS), THC, a molecule active at both the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor subtypes. Through the activation primarily of CB1 receptors in the central nervous system, THC can reduce nausea, emesis and pain in caner patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis, and Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Tumor Growth in Prostate Cancer in a Cannabinoid-Receptor 2 Dependent Manner

Cannabinoids have demonstrated anticarcinogenic properties in a variety of malignancies, including prostate cancer. In the present study, we explored the anti-cancer effects of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2(WIN) in prostate cancer.

Treatment with Cannabinoids as a Promising Approach for Impairing Fibroblast Activation and Prostate Cancer Progression

Endo-, phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids have been proposed as promising anti-cancer agents able to impair cancer cells’ behavior without affecting their non-transformed counterparts. However, cancer outcome depends not only cancer cells’ activity, but also on the stromal cells, which coevolve with cancer cells to sustain tumor progression.

Endocrine Studies

Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabicarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study

Cannabidiol (CBD) and Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids affecting lipid and glucose metabolism in animal models. This study set out to examine the effects of these compounds in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Phytocannabinoids: Useful Drugs for the Treatment of Obesity? Special Focus on Cannabidiol

Currently, an increasing number of diseases related to insulin resistance and obesity is an alarming problem worldwide. It is well-known that the above states can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases.

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications

Increasing evidence suggests that an overactive endocannabinoid system (ECS) may contribute to the development of diabetes by promoting energy intake and storage, impairing both glucose and lipid metabolism, by exerting pro-apoptotic effects in pancreatic beta cells and by facilitating inflammation in pancreatic islets.

Neurologic Research Studies

Structure-Activity Relationship of Cannabis Derived Compounds for the Treatment of Neuronal Activity-Related Diseases

The benefits related to cannabis use in PwMS are still under investigation. However, data indicates that cannabis, with 1:1 or greater CBD;THC ratio, reduces muscle spasticity and pain in PwMS

Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis

Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in the cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD) in this setting.

The Therapeutic Potential of the Phytocannabinoid Cannabidiol for Alzheimer’s Disease

 The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) possesses neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and reduces amyloid-B production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro.

Beyond the CB1 receptor – is cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation

 The Cannabis sativa plant has been used to treat various physiological and psychiatric conditions for mellennia. Current research is focused on isolating potentially therapeutic chemical constituents from the plant for use in the treatment of many central nervous system disorders.

Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

Research in both animals and humans indicates that cannabidiol (CBD) has anti-psychotic properties. The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of CBD in patients with schizophrenia.

Cannabidiol Enhancement of Exposure Therapy in Treatment Refractory Patients with Phobias: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Phobic anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and are burdensome in terms of loss of quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatments are relatively successful in the majority of patients, especially exposure therapy. However, a substantial subset of patients fails to achieve or stay in remission.

Cannabidiol Regulation of Emotion and Emotional Memory Processing – Relevance for Treating Anxiety-Related and Substance Abuse Disorders

Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behavior, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively.

Cannabinoid Regulation of Fear and Anxiety – an update

Anxiety and trauma related disorders are prevalent and debilitating mental illnesses associated with a significant socioeconomic burden. Current treatment approaches often have inadequate therapeutic responses, leading to symptom relapse. Here we review recent preclinical and clinical findings on the potential of cannabinoids as novel therapeutics for regulating fear and anxiety.

In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation – Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid

Inflammation and oxidative stress play main roles in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, different natural compounds may be able to exert neuroprotective actions against inflammation and oxidative stress, protecting from neuronal cell loss. Among these natural sources, cannabis sativa represents a reservoir of compounds exerting beneficial properties, including cannabigerol (CBG), whose antioxidant properties have already been demonstrated in macrophages.

Long-term Safety and Treatment Effects of Cannabidoil in Children and Adults with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsies

Since 2014, cannabidiol (CBD) has been administered to patients with treatment-resistant epilepsies (TREs) in an ongoing expanded-access program (EAP). We report interim results on the safety and efficacy of CBD in BAP patients treated through December 2016.

Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor is Safe When Combined with Delayed r-tPA Administration in Treatment of Stroke

Administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) during first 3-4.5 hours after ischemic stroke is the main therapeutic strategy; however, its using after that, leads to reperfusion injury and neurotoxic effects. Additionally, inflammation has a critical role in secondary injury after late reperfusion therapy.

Oral Cannabidiol Use in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Treat Related Symptoms and Co-Morbidities

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly exhibit comorbid symptoms such as aggression, hyperactivity and anxiety. Several studies are being conducted worldwide on cannabidiol use in ASD; however, these studies are still ongoing, and data on the effects of its use is very limited. In this study we aimed to report the experience of parents who administer, under supervision, oral cannabinoids to their children with ASD.

Pathways and Gene Networks Mediating the Regulatory Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, in Autoimmune T Cells

Our previous studies showed that the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), ameliorates the clinical symptoms in mouse myelin aligadenrocyte glyoprotein (MOG) 35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as decreases the memory MOG35-55-specific T cells (Tmcg) proliferation and cytokine secretion including IL-17, a key autoimmune factor. The mechanisms of these activities are currently poorly understood.

Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders

Beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD) have been described for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, psychosis, and depression. The mechanisms responsible for these effects, however, are still poorly understood. Similar to clinical antidepressants or atypical anti-psychotic drugs, recent findings clearly indicate that CBD, either acutely or repeatedly administered, induces plastic changes.

Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities and often intellectual disabilities. ASD has a number of prevalent co-morbidities, such as sleep disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy. 

Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Lacks on Detrimental Effects on Memory, Motor Performance and Anxiety

The Cannabis plant contains more than 100 currently known phytocannabinoids. Regarding the rising consumption of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) in people’s everyday life (e.g. beauty products, food and beverages), the importance of studies on the influence of CBD on healthy humans and rodents is evident.

A Phase I, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single Ascending Dose, Multiple Dose, and Food Effect Trial of the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Highly Purified Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects

A formal single ascending and multiple dose pharmacokinetic (PK) trial of cannabidiol (CBD) oral solution was required to determine the safety and tolerability of CBD, the maximum tolerated dose, and to examine the effect of food on CBD PK parameters.

The Effect of Cannabidiol on Low-Frequency Activity and Functional Connectivity in the Brain of Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder

The potential benefits of cannabis and its major non-intoxicating component cannabidiol (CBD) are attracting attention, including a potential treatment in neurodevelopment disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the neural action of CBD, and its relevance to ASD, remains unclear. We and others have previously shown that response to drug challenge can be measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but that pharmacological responsivity is atypical in ASD. 

Therapeutic Effects of Cannabinoids in Animal Models of Seizures, Epilepsy, Epileptogenesis, and Epilepsy-Related Neuroprotection

The isolation and identification of the discrete plant cannabinoids in marijuana revived interest in analyzing historical therapeutic claims made for cannabis in clinical case studies and anecdotes. In particular, sources as old as the 11th and 15th centuries claimed efficacy for crude marijuana extracts in the treatment of convulsive disorders, prompting a particularly active area of preclinical research into the therapeutic potential of plant cannabinoids in epilepsy.

Translating Endocannabinoid Biology into Clinical Practice – Cannabidiol for Stroke Prevention

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates functions throughout human physiology, including neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, autonomic, metabolic, and inflammatory states. The complex cellular interactions regulated by the ECS suggest a potential for vascular disease and stroke prevention by augmenting central nervous and immune cell endocannabinoid signaling.

Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol

Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical effects of marijuana. The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry.

Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with Cannabidiol

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is an X-linked dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene. Cannabidiol (CBD) is an exogenous phytocannabinoid with therapeutic potential for individuals with anxiety, poor sleep, and cognitive deficits, as well as populations with endocannabinoid deficiencies, such as those who suffer from FXS.

Effects of CBD-Enriched Cannabis Sativa Extract on Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms: An Observational Study of 18 Participants Undergoing Compassionate Use

Autism Spectrum Disorder comprise conditions that may affect cognitive development, motor skills, social interaction, communication, and behavior. This set of functional deficits often results in lack of independence for the diagnosed individuals, and severe distress for patients, families, and caregivers.

Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Psychosis

Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are heterogeneous and often debilitating conditions that contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. The introduction of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in the 1950’s revolutionised the treatment of psychotic disorders and they remain the mainstay of our treatment arsenal for psychosis. However, traditional antipsychotics are associated with a number of side effects and a significant portion of patients do not achieve an adequate remission of symptoms.

Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report

Anxiety and sleep disorders are often the result of posttraumatic stress disorder and can contribute to an impaired ability to focus and to demonstration of oppositional behaviors. Cannabidiol oil, an increasingly popular treatment for anxiety and sleep issues, has been documented as being an effective alternative to pharmaceutical medications. This case study provides clinical data that support the use of cannabidiol as a safe treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat Hypo-E22 cells and Isolated Hypothalamus

Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychotropic terpenophenols isolated from Cannabis sativa, which, besides their anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects, are able to inhibit, the first, and to stimulate, the second, the appetite although there are no studies elucidating their role in the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network. Consequently, the aim of the present research is to investigate the role of CBD and CBG in regulating hypothalamic neuromodulators.

Effects of Cannabidiol on Brain Excitation and Inhibition Systems; A Randomised Placebo-controlled Single Dose Trial During Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

There is increasing interest in the use of cannabis and its major non-intoxicating component cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment for mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, before launching large-scale clinical trials, a better understanding of the effects of CBD on brain would be desirable.

Biological Bases for a Possible Effect of Cannabidiol in Parkinson’s Disease

Current pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is palliative and unable to modify the progression of neurodegeneration. Treatments that can improve patients’ quality of life with fewer side effects are needed, but not yet available. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic constituents of cannabis, has received considerable research attention in the last decade

From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Cannabis satica, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects. Besides D9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive  phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression.

Chronic Pain & Inflammation Studies

Acute inflammation and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Cannabidiol as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment?

SARS-CoV-2 is a new beta coronavirus first reported in China with a 14-day incubation period [1]. Infected persons may be either asymp- tomatic carriers, during which time they can transmit the virus to others [2], or develop mild disease involving cough and rhinitis, with or without mild pneumonia.

The Use of Cannabinoids in Colitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Clinical trials investigating the use of cannabinoid drugs for the treatment of intestinal inflammation are anticipated secondary to preclinical literature demonstrating efficacy in reducing inflammation.

Allodynia Lowering Induced by Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoids (ALICE)

Neuropathic pain is a neurological disorder that strongly affects the quality of life of patients. The molecular and cellular mechanisms at the basis of the neuropathic pain establishment still need to be clarified. Among the neuromodulators that play a role in the pathological pain pathways, endocannabinoids could be deeply involved in both neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tactile allodynia.

A Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist Produces Robust Anti-Nociceptive Effects in Rodent Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

Cannabinoids are analgesic in man, but their use is limited by their psychoactive properties. One way to avoid cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1R)-mediated central side-effects is to develop CB1R agonists with limited CNS penetration. Activation or peripheral CB1Rs has been proposed to be analgesic, but the relative contribution of peripheral CB1Rs to the analgesic effects of systemic cannabinoids remains unclear. Here we addressed this by exploring the analgesic properties and site of action AZ11713908, a peripherally restricted CB1R agonist, in rodent pain models.

In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, A Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid

Inflammation and oxidative stress play main roles in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, different natural compounds may be able to exert neuroprotective actions against inflammation and oxidative stress, protecting from neuronal loss. Among these natural sources, Cannabis Sativa represents a reservoir of compounds exerting beneficial properties, including cannabigerol (CBG), whose antioxidant properties have already been demonstrated in macrophages.

Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain

This article reviews recent research on cannabinoid analgesia via the endocannabinoid system and non-receptor mechanisms, as well as randomized clinical trials employing cannabinoids in pain treatment.

Cannabinoids as Novel Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Cannabinoid receptors include CB1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, and CB2, which is primarily found in the cells of the immune system. Manipulation of endocannabinoids and/or use of exogenous cannabinoids in vivo can constitute a potent treatment modality against inflammatory disorders.

Adherence to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Guidelines for Reporting Safety Outcomes in Trials of Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain

Chronic pain affects a significant proportion of the population and presents a major challenge to clinicians and pain specialists. Despite the availability of pharmacologic treatment options such as opioids, many patients continue to experience persistent pain. Cannabinoids present an alternative option with some data on efficacy; however, to date, a systematic review of adverse events (AEs) assessment and reporting in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving cannabinoids has not been performed.

Analysis of the Anti-Allodynic Effects of Combination of a Synthetic Cannabinoid and a Selective Noradrenaline Re-Uptake Inhibitor in Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Mice

Combining drugs not only reduces specific adverse effects of each of the drug at a higher dose but also may lead to enhanced efficacy. Taking into the consideration, the pharmacological similarities between opioids and cannabinoids, we assumed that combination of cannabinoids with noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors might also be effective.

Anti-inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid, in Experimental Allergic Dermatitis

Phytocannabinoids modulate inflammatory responses by regulating the production of cytokines in several experimental models of inflammation. Cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor activation was shown to reduce the production of the monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) chemokine in the polyinosinicpolycytidylic acid cells, an in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).

Antinociceptive Effects of HUF-101, a Fluorinated Cannabidiol Derivative

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with multiple pharmacological effects and several potential therapeutic properties. Its low oral bioavailability, however, can limit its clinical use. Preliminary results indicate that fluorination of the CBD molecule increases its pharmacological potency.

Attenuation of Early Phase Inflammation by Cannabidiol Prevents Pain and Nerve Damage in Rat Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy.

Cannabinoid WIN-55, 212-2 Mesylate Inhibitors Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Induced Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) is an established pain modulator in the peripheral nervous system. Elevated levels of TNF-a in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons reportedly is critical for neuropathic pain processing. It has been shown that the production of nitric oxide, a key player in the development and maintenance of nociception, depends on the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and their activities.

Cannabinoids and Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Refractory Pain

This study aimed to evaluate pain and its symptoms in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) refractory to other therapies, treated with a combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in association with spinal cord stimulation (SCS).

Cannabis and Intractable Chronic Pain

Despite growing interest in the therapeutic use of cannabis to manage chronic pain, only limited data that address these issues are available. In recent years, a number of nations have introduced specific laws to allow patients to use cannabis preparations to treat a variety of medical conditions.

Comparison of Cannabinoids with Known Analgesics Using a Novel High Throughput Zebrafish Larval Model of Nociception

It has been established that both adult and larval zebrafish are capable of showing nociceptive responses to noxious stimuli; however, the use of larvae to test novel analgesics has not been fully explored. Zebrafish larvae represent a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to traditional mammalian models for the assessment of product efficacy during the initial stages of drug development.

Chronic Pain and Cannabinoids

The discovery of the endocannabinoid system nearly three decades ago generated great interest among pain scientists. Moreover, its analogy with the opioid system in terms of evolutionary preservation, tissue localization and analgesic activity enabled a vast new field for the development of medicines addressed to those types of pain that still nowadays are difficult to manage.

Involvement of Glycine Receptor Alpha 1 Subunits in Cannabinoid-Induced Analgesia

Some cannabinoids have shown to suppress chronic pain by targeting glycine receptors (GlyRs). Although cannabinoid potentiation of a3 GlyRs is thought to contribute to cannabinoid-induced analgesia, the role of cannabinoid potentiation of a1 GlyRs in cannabinoid suppression of chronic pain remains unclear.

Pharmacotherapeutic Considerations for Use of Cannabinoids to Relieve Pain in Patients with Malignant Diseases

The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of cannabis preparations for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases, through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were predominantly double-blind trials that compared cannabis preparation to a placebo.

Opioid and Cannabinoid Synergy in a Mouse Neuropathic Pain Model

Clinical studies have reported that pain-cannabinoid receptor agonists may have efficacy in neuropathic pain states and that this might be enhanced by co-administration with opioids. While cannabinoid-opioid analgesic synergy has been demonstrated in animal models of acute pain, it has not been examined in neuropathic pain models.

Plant-Based Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain

Chronic neuropathic pain is a prevalent condition that places a heavy burden on individuals and the healthcare system. Current medications have limitations and new approaches are needed, particularly given the current opioid crisis. There is some clinical evidence that cannabis sativa produces relief from neuropathic pain.

Single Oral Dose of Cannabinoid Derivate Loaded PLGA Nanocarriers Relieves Neuropathic Pain for Eleven Days

Neuropathic pain, resistant to opiates and other drugs, is a chronic/persistent state with a complex treatment and often poor efficacy. In this scenario, cannabinoids are increasingly regarded as a genuine alternative. In this paper, and in experimental animal model of neuropathic pain, we studied the efficacy of three kinds of PLGA nanoparticles containing synthetic cannabinoid CB13.

Anti-inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis

Cannabinoids are well known to have anti-inflammatory effects in mammalians, however, the Cannabis plant also contains other compounds such as terpenoids, whose biological effects have not yet been characterized. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory properties of terpenoids with those of cannabidiol (CBD).

Cannabinoids Ligands Targeting TRP Channels

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a group of membrane proteins involved in the transduction of a plethora of chemical and physical stimuli. These channels modulate ion entry, mediating a variety of neural signaling processes implicated in the sensation of temperature, pressure, and pH, as well as smell, taste, vision, and pain perception.

Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis

Current arthritis treatments often have side-effects attributable to active compounds as well as route of administration. Cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side-effects, but CBD is hydrophobic and has poor oral bioavailability. Topical drug application avoids gastrointestinal administration, first pass metabolism, providing more constant plasma levels.

Evaluation of the Effects of CBD Hemp Extract on Opioid Use and Quality of Life Indicators in Chronic Pain Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study

Chronic pain is highly prevalent in most of the industrialized nations around the world. Despite the documented adverse effects, opioids are widely used for pain management. Cannabinoids and specifically Cannabidiol, is proposed as an opioid alternative, having comparable efficacy with better safety profile.

Modulation of Astrocyte Activity by Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid

The astrocytes have gained in recent decades an enormous interest as a potential target for
neurotherapies, due to their essential and pleiotropic roles in brain physiology and pathology. Their
precise regulation is still far from understood, although several candidate molecules/systems arise as
promising targets for astrocyte-mediated neuroregulation and/or neuroprotection.

Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Roles of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model Asthma

Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in the cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD) in this setting.

Cannabidiol (CBD) Consumption and Perceived Impact on Extrahepatic
Symptoms in Patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disorder in which clinical presentation can vary widely from non-specifc extrahepatic symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. Utilization and safety of cannabidiol (CBD) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are currently unknown. This study aimed to identify the frequency of CBD use, impact on symptoms, and safety profile.

Substance Abuse & Addiction Research Studies

Cannabidiol Regulation of Emotion and Emotional Memory Processing: Relevance for Treating Anxiety-Related and Substance Abuse Disorders

Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat.

Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage

Whereas Tetracannabinol hs been well documented to be rewarding and to enhance sensitivity to other drugs, cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast, appears to have low reinforcing properties with limited abuse potential and to inhibit drug-seeking behavior.

Abuse Potential Assessment of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Recreational Polydrug Users: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

Of the more than 80 cannabinoid compounds produced by Cannabis Sativa L, the two major neuroactive components are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which has euphoric effects, and cannabidiol (CBD), which is thought to lack euphoric effects: 

Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors

Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to use drugs and a loss of control over consumption. Cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant component of cannabis, is thought to modulate various neuronal circuits in drug addiction.

Cannabidiol Attenuates Alcohol-Induced Liver Steatosis, Metabolic Dysregulation, Inflammation and Neutrophil-Mediated Injury

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive component of marijuana, which has anti-inflammatory effects. It has also been approved by FDA for various diseases for exploratory trials. Herein, we investigated the effects of CBD on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice.

Cannabidiol Does Not Display Drug Abuse Potential in Mice Behavior

Recent evidence suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may be useful for the treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders. However, some controversy regarding its profile as a drug of abuse hampers the further development of basic and clinical studies.

Cannabidiol is an Allosteric Modulater at Mu- and Delta-Opioid Receptors

The mechanism of action of cannabidiol, one of the major constituents of cannabis, is not well understood but a noncompetitive interaction with mu opioid receptors has been suggested on the basis of saturation binding experiments. The aim of this study was to examine whether cannabidiol is an allosteric modulator at this receptor, using kinetic binding studies.

Cannabidiol Reverses Attentional Bias to Cigarette Cues in a Human Experimental Model of Tobacco Withdrawal

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-toxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, may be a promising novel smoking cessation treatment due to its anoxiolytic properties, minimal side effects and research showing that it may modify drug cue salience. We used an experimental medicine approach with dependent cigarette smokers to investigate if overnight nicotine abstinence, compared with satiety, will produce greater attentional bias.

Cannabidiol Treatment Might Promote Resilience to Cocaine and Methamphetamine Use Disorders: A Review of Possible Mechanisms

Currently, there is no approved pharmacotherapies for addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulant drugs. Several studies have proposed that cannabidiol (CBD) could be a promising treatment for substance use disorders. In the present work, the authors describe the scarce preclinical and human research about the actions of CBD on the effects of stimulant drugs.

Cannabidiol’s Promise for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorder

Substance use disorder is characterized by repeated use of a substance, leading to clinically significant distress, making it a serious public health concern. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in common neurobiological processes underlying substance use disorder, in particular by mediating the rewarding and motivational effects of substances and substance-related cues.

High-Intensity Cannabis Use is Associated with Retention in Opioid Agonist Treatment: A Longitudinal Analysis

Cannabis use is common in people on opioid agonist treatment (OAT), causing concern for some care providers. However, there is limited and conflicting evidence on the impact of cannabis use on OAT outcomes. Given the critical role of retention in OAT in reducing opioid-related morbidity and mortality, we aimed to estimate the association of at least daily cannabis use on the likelihood of retention in treatment among people initiating OAT.

Cannabidiol: Swinging the Marijuana Pendulum from ‘Weed’ to Medication to Treat the Opioid Epidemic

Epidemics require a paradigm shift in thinking about all possible solutions. The rapidly changing socio-political marijuana landscape provides a foundation for the therapeutic development of medicinal cannabidiol to address the current opioid abuse crisis.

Oral Cannabidiol Does Not Produce a Signal for Abuse Liability in Frequent Marijuana Smokers

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g. pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substance Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability.

The Potential of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Psychosis and Addiction: Who Benefits Most? A Systematic Review

The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both psychotic disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs). The non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound, cannabidiol (CBD) is a highly promising tool in the treatment of both disorders.

The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Addictive Behavior

The revolution on cannabinoid research started when the primary psychoactive constituents of cannabis (delta)8-THC and (delta)9-THC, were isolated in 1964. This finding triggered the identification and cloning of its cellular target, the cannabinoid receptor (CB1), and a second mainly peripheral CB2 receptor.

Unique Treatment Potential of Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Relapse to Drug Use: Preclinical Proof of Principle

Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis Sativa, has received attention for therapeutic potential in treating neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Recently, CBD has also been explored for potential in treating drug addiction. Substance use disorders are chronically relapsing conditions, and relapse risk persists for multiple reasons including craving induced by drug contexts, susceptibility to stress, elevated anxiety, and impaired impulse control.

Social and Economic Studies

Economic and Social Costs of Legalized Marijuana

The Centennial Institute at Colorado Christian University commissioned this study to better understand the economic and social costs of legalized marijuana. While much has been written about the tax revenue and total sales generated from commercial marijuana, there has been little research to understand how Coloradans are paying to mitigate the consequences of commercial marijuana.Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat.

Topical CBD Studies

Myorelaxant Effect of Transdermal Cannabidiol Application in Patients with TMD: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

The healing properties of cannabidiol (CBD) have been known for centuries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the myorelaxant effect of CBD after the transdermal application in patients with myofascial pain. 

A Therapeutic Effect of CBD-Enriched Ointment in Inflammatory Skin Diseases and Cutaneous Scars

Several chronic inflammatory skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis (or eczema), psoriasis, cutaneous infections, and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome reduce significantly the patients’ quality of life, health outcomes and work productivity.

Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid, in Experimental Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Phyocannabinoids modulate inflammatory responses by regulating the production of cytokines in several experimental models of inflammation. Cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor activation was shown to reduce the production of the monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) chemokine in polyinosinic-polyctidylic acid-stimulated human keratinocyte cells, an in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis. 

Cannabidiol Exerts Sebostatic and Antiinflammatory Effects on Human Sebocytes

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis Sativa, on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent.

Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis

Current arthritis treatments often have side-effects attributable to active compounds as well as route of administration. Cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side-effects, but CBD is hydrophobic and has poor oral bioavailability. Topical drug application avoids gastrointestinal administration, first pass metabolism, providing more constant plasma levels.

Cannabidiol Induces Antioxidant Pathways in Keratinocytes by Targeting

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that attracted a great attention for its therapeutic potential against different pathologies including skin diseases. However, although the efficacy in preclinical models and the clinical benefits of CBD in humans have been extensively demonstrated, the molecular mechanism(s) and targets responsible for these effects are as yet unknown

Cannabidiol Effects on Phospholipid Metabolism in Keratinocytes from Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by dysregulated keratinocyte differentiation, but oxidative stress also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, we examined the effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid with
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on the redox balance and phospholipid metabolism in UVA/UVB-irradiated keratinocytes isolated from the skin of psoriatic patients or healthy volunteers.

Pharmacology Safety Studies

A Phase 1, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Subjects with Mild to Severe Hepatic Impairment

The Pharmacokinetics and safety of a single oral dose of 200-mg plant derived pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) in oral solution (Epidiolex in the United States; 100 mg/mL) were assessed in subjects with mild to severe hepatic impairment (n= 8 each for mild and moderate, n = 6 for severe) relative to matched subjects with normal hepatic function (n = 8). Blood samples were collected until 48 hours after dosing and evaluated by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

Pharmacology Absorption and Bioavailability Studies

Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol Administered by 3 Delivery Methods at 2 Different Dosages to Healthy Dogs

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy dogs. Thirty, healthy research dogs were assigned to receive 1 to 3 formulations (oral micoencapsulated oil beads, oral CBD-infused oil, or CBD-infused transdermal cream), at a dose of 75mg or 150mg q12h for 6wk.

Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Oral Cannabidiol when Administered Concomitantly with Intravenous Fentanyl in Humans

Cannabidiol (CBD) is hypothesized as a potential treatment for opioid addiction, with safety studies an important first step for medication development. We determined CBD safety and pharmacokinetics when administered concomitantly with high-potency opioid in healthy subjects.

Dental Studies

Comparison of Efficacy of Cannabinoids Versus Commercial Oral Care Products in Reducing Bacterial Content from Dental Plaque – A Preliminary Observation

Dental plaque is a complex biofilm that gets formed on the teeth and acts as a reservoir of different microbes. It is the root cause for the occurrence of several dental problems and diseases, including cavities, bad breath, bleeding gums, tooth decay, and tooth loss. Therefore, it should be regularly removed using suitable oral care aids. The present study compared the efficacy of oral care products and cannabinoids in reducing the bacterial content of dental plaques.